Processes

ANIMAL FEED

Animal feed is food given to domestic animals in the course of animal husbandry. Feed refers particularly to food given to the animals (Cattle, Poultry, Fish, Shrimp, Goat, Horse), rather than that which they forage for themselves. It includes haystrawsilage, compressed and pelleted feeds, oils and mixed rations, and sprouted grains and legumesFeed grains are the most important source of animal nutrition globally. The two most important feed grains are maize and soybean and the other feed grains include wheatoatsbarley, and rice, among many others.

Compound feed is fodder that is blended from various raw materials and additives. These blends are formulated according to the specific requirements of the target animal. They are manufactured by feed compounders as meal type, pellets or crumbles. The main ingredients used in commercially prepared feed are the feed grains, which include cornsoybeanssorghumoats, and barley.

Compound feed may also include premixes, which may also be sold separately. Premixes are composed of micro-ingredients such as vitamins, minerals, chemical preservatives, antibiotics, fermentation products, and other essential ingredients that are purchased from premix companies, usually in sacked form, for blending into commercial rations.

FEED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY

Feed manufacturing process and the machines for the process have evolved and refined after years of operation in various countries at different locations. In the past, the feed miller ground his raw materials one by one. A limited number of ingredients could then be mixed in batch mixers. Since the needs were low he could afford to do this and also had a lot time. As farms expanded and the number of difficult ingredients increased, the conventional method was no longer sufficient and the mixed grinding operation was introduced. Here pre-weighed individual material as batches were fed to the hammer mill and ground together. After the grinding operation these batches were put into a blender with a given mixing time (between 4 to 6 minutes per batch). This mixing time determined the overall capacity of the plants irrespective of all other factors.

Processes

Cattle Feed

Raw Materials

Ingredients used for cattle feed are Wheat bran, Rice bran extraction, Cake, Maize, Damaged Wheat, Cottonseed, Molasses, Salt, Calcium carbonate, Molasses,  Mineral mixture & Vitamin mix. Different ingredients for the process are selected depending upon the specific requirements for particular applications.

Intake & Cleaning

These raw materials are fed into a dumping hopper as per the batch size and formulation. In case of an Auto Batching Plant, the raw materials are stored in individual batching bins and are weighed in a weigh Hopper as per formulation via bin dischargers. The Batch is then passed through a magnet to separate out the ferrous impurities and a Jute twine remover to remove Jute and other strings of plastic from the raw material.

Grinding

After Cleaning the batch is stored in a grinding hopper. The Batch tracking systems follows the batch and lets it enter the Hammer Mill (Grinder) via a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) operated Feeder making sure no two batches are mixed. The Grinder powders the raw material to typically 900 – 1200 micron particle size. The batch is ground but is not homogenous in mixing and hence is passed to the mixer.

Mixing

The mixing section is equipped with a batch mixer which is a paddle or a ribbon type of mixer. Here as per the batch tracking system, the entire batch enters the mixers and is mixed altogether. The typical process is about 3-5 minutes of mixing time. Here the powder is homogeneously mixed to achieve a <5% variation in the sampling.

Mollasifying

After mixing, the material is fed into mollasifying section in which, molasses is added. The Molasses is added from a pre heated Molasses storage tank via a VFD operated pump. In some cases, where material does not require pelletizing, the material is directly taken to Mesh Bin and bagged before dispatch.

Pelletizing

In pelletizing Section, Wet Steam is supplied for conditioning the material to improve pellet quality and operating characteristics of the pellet mill. Conditioned Material is compressed and extruded from Die to produced 6 mm to 10 mm diameter pellet in a Pellet Mill.

Screening & Packaging

Pellets are then cooled in Cooler and passed through vibratory sieve for correct size of product. Final product stored in Bagging Bin and Bagged after weighed.

Poultry Feed

Raw Materials

Ingredients used for Poultry feed are Corn, Sorghum, Barley, Rye, Triticale, Oats, Soybean, Canola, cottonseed, Minerals, vitamins and Oils of turmeric, vegetable etc. Different ingredients for the process are selected depending upon the specific requirements for particular applications.

Intake & Cleaning

These raw materials are fed into a dumping hopper as per the batch size and formulation. In case of an Auto Batching Plant, the raw materials are stored in individual batching bins and are weighed in a weigh Hopper as per formulation via bin dischargers. The Batch is then passed through a magnet to separate out the ferrous impurities and a Jute twine remover to remove Jute and other strings of plastic from the raw material.

Grinding

After Cleaning the batch is stored in a grinding hopper. The Batch tracking systems follows the batch and lets it enter the Hammer Mill (Grinder) via a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) operated Feeder making sure no two batches are mixed. The Grinder powders the raw material to typically 700 – 1000 micron particle size. The batch is ground but is not homogenous in mixing and hence is passed to the mixer.

Mixing

The mixing section is equipped with a batch mixer which is a paddle or a ribbon type of mixer. Here as per the batch tracking system, the entire batch enters the mixers and is mixed altogether. Oil as per the formulation is added in the Batch Mixer. Oil is dosed into the system after being weighed in a dosing tank. The typical process is about 3-5 minutes of mixing time. The dry powder is mixed for 2 minutes before the oil is sprayed in the system and then there is a wet mixing of 3 minutes. Here the powder is homogeneously mixed to achieve a <5% variation in the sampling.

Pelletizing & Crumbling

In pelletizing Section, wet Steam is supplied for conditioning the material to improve pellet quality and operating characteristics of the pellet mill. Conditioned Material is compressed and extruded from Die to produced 2.8 mm to 3 mm diameter pellet in a Pellet Mill. Pellets are then cooled in Cooler and passed through Crumbler to achieve smaller crumbs to feed growing chicks as per their age and weight.

Screening & Packaging

Crushed Pellet is fed into vibratory sieve to screen out correct size of product. Final product stored in Bagging Bin and Bagged after weighed.

Shrimp Feed

Raw Material Receiving and Cleaning

Ingredients used for Aqua feed are straw meal, soybean cake, peanut cake, corn protein powder, rice bran, wheat bran, Minerals, Vitamins, lecithin Oil, Fish Oil and fish meal. Different ingredients for the process are selected depending upon the specific requirements for particular applications.

Intake & Cleaning

These raw materials are fed into a dumping hopper as per the batch size and formulation. In case of an Auto Batching Plant, the raw materials are stored in individual batching bins and are weighed in a weigh Hopper as per formulation via bin dischargers. The Batch is then passed through a magnet to separate out the ferrous impurities and a Jute twine remover to remove Jute and other strings of plastic from the raw material.

Pre Grinding and Mixing

After Cleaning the batch is stored in a pre grinding hopper. The Batch tracking systems follows the batch and lets it enter the Hammer Mill (Grinder) via a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) operated Feeder making sure no two batches are mixed. The first level of grinding grinds the larger grains to fine powder which is typically 700 – 1000 micron particle size. For Shrimp Feed the particle required is extremely fine and hence after the first mixing there is a process of second mixing. But before the second mixing the batch is mixed in the mixer. The mixing section is equipped with a batch mixer which is typically a ribbon type of mixer. Here as per the batch tracking system, the entire batch enters the mixers and is mixed altogether. The typical process is about 3-5 minutes of mixing time. Essential oils as per the formulae are added in the system. Here the powder is homogeneously mixed to achieve a <5% variation in the sampling.

Fine Grinding

After the mixing process, the batch is ground once again to achieve very fine powder which is about 250 – 400 micron size.

Conditioning, Extrusion, Shaping

In pelletizing Section, Wet Steam is supplied for conditioning the material to improve pellet quality and operating characteristics of Pellet Mill. The feed is thoroughly conditioned to increase the moisture of the feed to above 16%. The feed is then pelleted and further post conditioned after the pelleting.

Drying

Once the product leaves the pelleting system, a drying step is optional to remove the excess water and return the product back to a shelf-stable moisture condition. The drying is only necessary when the final product moisture cannot be achieved by a cooling process.

Cooling, Crumbling and Screening

The pellets from the pellet mill are cooled in a cooler then crumbled to smaller crumbs depending on the type of feed being produced. The crumbs are then further screened to achieve a uniform product quality. The larger crumbs are sent to the crumbler again and the fines are sent for reprocessing.

Screening & Packaging

Pellet and crumbs are fed into vibratory sieve to screen out correct size of product. Final product stored in Bagging Bin and Bagged after weighed.

Fish Feed

Raw Material Receiving and Cleaning

Ingredients used for Aqua feed are straw meal, soybean cake, peanut cake, corn protein powder, rice bran, wheat bran, Minerals, Vitamins, lecithin Oil, Fish Oil and fish meal. Different ingredients for the process are selected depending upon the specific requirements for particular applications.

Intake & Cleaning

These raw materials are fed into a dumping hopper as per the batch size and formulation. In case of an Auto Batching Plant, the raw materials are stored in individual batching bins and are weighed in a weigh Hopper as per formulation via bin dischargers. The Batch is then passed through a magnet to separate out the ferrous impurities and a Jute twine remover to remove Jute and other strings of plastic from the raw material.

First Mixing and Grinding

The first mixing after the batching is to make the feed homogeneous. No oil is added in this process of mixing. After the first mixing the feed is processed through the grinder. Here the particles are ground to fine powder of the size of 700 – 900 micron.

Pulverizing and second mixing

After the first grinding, depending on the type of feed being processed, the batch is processed through the pulverize to grind it into a fine talcum powder like powder for starter feed for fish. After the pulverizing the batch is mixed in a double shaft paddle mixer where the oils are added as per formulation.

Conditioning, Extrusion, Shaping

In pelletizing Section, wet Steam is supplied for conditioning the material to improve pellet quality and operating characteristics of Extruder. An Extruder is basically composed of a stationary barrel housing in which such elements as segmented screws and shearlocks rotates, fulfilling extrusion operation together with a disc and knife assembly. Single Screw and Twin Screw extruder used depending on application.

Drying

Once the product leaves the extrusion system, a drying step is required to remove the excess water and return the product back to a shelf-stable moisture condition. It is recommended to apply a cross flow dryer for drying wet extrudates, in which moisture and heat of product is exchanged with a perpendicular airflow.

Vacuum Coating & Cooling

If necessary, liquid fats, flavors, and vitamins can be added externally to extruded feeds after drying. Post liquid application by coating will not only avoid the risk of damaging heat sensitive ingredients, but also improve the palatability and reduce powder generation of the finished product. After coating, extruded aqua feed is cooled as required.

Screening & Packaging

Pellet and crumbs are fed into vibratory sieve to screen out correct size of product. Final product stored in Bagging Bin and Bagged after weighed.

Other Feed

With more than 35 years of experience, at Cremach Designs, we have a team of industrious and committed experts who offer the best machinery in the industry along with adequate after sales services to clients and assist them in installation and commissioning of our products. Industrial expertise & a deep experience have backed us up in providing efficient equipment and services to our clients.

With a workshop facility of more than 40,000 Sq ft equipped with the state of the art tools and equipment, Cremach Designs is located in the heart of the industrious GIDC in Makarpura, Vadodara. A dedicated and expert team of more than 200 has supported the endeavors and the vision of the company to supply the best quality feed machinery in the industry across the globe.

Our expertise is in providing turnkey plants for animal feed plant for cattle, poultry, fish, shrimp, prawn, goat or camel feed. We are one of the leaders in manufacturing and installation of machinery for animal feed with a focus on design and engineering. Established in 1979, Cremach Designs has been a part of the growth of the feed industry in the country. Along with complete installation and erection or turnkey plants, we specialize in automation to the process.